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TALIBAN (The profile of 2000's)20 JULY 2005 By Dr. A.Yılmaz Soyyer

TALIBAN (The profile of 2000's) 
20 JULY 2005 
By Dr. A.Yılmaz Soyyer 
1-THE HUMAN CENTERED MADRASAHES OF TALIBAN 
There are more than eight thousand madrasahes in Pakistan. About 200.000 Pakistani and Afghani students were being educated in these schools. Several numbers of madrasahes were established as a consequence of the Islamic animation and Deobandi movement in Northern India during the 19th century. This Deobandi movement was so strict and harsh that even did not let any photos to be taken. In these madrasahes the students were educated with discipline, which was a mixture of Taliban and Deobandi princibles. If you ask the short explanation of this doctrine it could be expressed as below: 

?A Taliban rejects to make a concession?. 

This strict attitude in Pakistan disturbs the moderate Moslems. Nevertheless, there are also some people that argue that this strict belief system has brought discipline and order to Afghanistan that was trembling because of disorder. 

There were only 50 madrasahes in Pakistan fifty years ago. However, in the 2000?s this number has increased. There were about eight thousand students in a single madrasah in Karachi. Most of the students studying in these madrasahas were from Middle East, Middle Asia and Africa. 

The education in these schools were mostly about memorizing Koran and teaching the basic principles. Most of the students were the children of poor families. The duration of the education depend from two years to nine years. 

For example, in Ziyaü?l-Medaris School, 150 students aged between 5-16 were trying to memorize Koran. Students were taught about Talibans ideological religious education in their spare times. One of the students told, ?I want to fight for Islam because this is what Allah wants from us? to David Rohde- one of the journalists that was in the region. 

A young teacher of a madrasah expressed that only 400 students joined Taliban from its school. Even though the administrators of madrasahes reject, some of these schools were providing lectures related to usage of guns. For example, Hareketü?l-Ensar is in the terrorist organizations list of USA. Therefore, these madrasahes started to become dangerous items for Pakistan. 

Even though the government of Pakistan tried to amend these schools it was too late because the Islamic organizations challenged this effort. 

2-THE EDUCATION CAMP OF THE FIGHTERS ARE DEOBANDI AND HAKKANIYE 

The Islamic source that influenced a large number of radical Islamics were beside a narrow road of an Indian town. Here was the Daru?l-Ulum madrasah. This school was established in 1866 in order to fight against the Hindus and students were thought only Koran. 

The members of Deobandi accept themselves as members educated according to the principles of ehl-i sünnet. The school was also providing a well-programmed education related to Hanefi cult as well. This school, which had 67.000 book-archived library, was supported in serious financial dimensions by the II.Abdülhamid. 

Another madrasah, which was the extension of Deobandi School, was established in Pakistan under the name of Hakkaniye in 1947. Nevertheless, in 2000?s this madrasah did not have any similarity with the classical Deobandi madrasah. This madrasah was under the control of an organization and party named as Cemiyet-i Ulema-i Islam. The age of the students of this school was between 8 and 35. Young students were spending their days by sitting cross-legged and memorizing Koran. In the advanced classes, commentary on the Koran and hadith were being thought. One of the mullah?s of this madrasah, Mevlana Hak, is the supporter of Usoma Bin Laden. 

3- TALIBAN AS AN ORGANIZATION AND OMER AS A LEADER 

Taliban is an organization that was born as a consequence of the special conditions of Afghanistan and the leader of this organization is Mullah Mohammed Omar. A group of student studying in Daru?l-Ulum madrasah has become together under the command of Mullah Omer who lost one of his eyes while he was fighting against the Russians. These young people were the children of war. Most of them were from families who ran away from the Soviet invasion. Furthermore, because these young people were raised in refugee camps in Pakistan, none of them were aware of their historical-tribal ties. 

Mullah Omer was born in 1959 as a son of a villager. He was rarely known in Afghanistan until 1994. He was struggling against only with its troops from 1989 to 1992. Omar has seen that the previous commanders were stealing the money of the public and they were torturing them. Therefore, he was terrified. These groups were fighting agaisnt the international aid convoys and were hindering the aid distribution to the public. 

During the Soviet invasion the Afghani women were also vulnerable and unprotective. They were kidnapped by the local feudal lords and their servants. In addition, they were forced to get married or they were raped. Besides, these feudal lords were not accepting rape as a crime that their servants were involved. 

Thus, Mullah Omer has emerged under these circumstances. It was believed that he took command from God in order to save and protect the Muslims. Moreover, he also announced himself as a person who will spread the laws of God in the world. Thus, in order to achieve this goal he established Taliban. 

The Afghanistan people met with Taliban in the summer months of 1994. The Afghani soldiers first thought that this armed group was a troop of United Nations. They were about 150 militia forces and about 50 tanks in this armed troop. These forces were announcing that they had no relation with any local Afghani fractions. 

This group who named itself as Taliban tried to bring a kind of justice based on tyranny. As a consequence of the radical comments of Omer, Taliban has adopted the idea of holy war as a principle. Taliban accepted women as inferior and convict them to live under thick clothes. 

The supporters of ?Taliban? claimed that they had established an administration based on pure Islam. During their four years of power, they have forbidden several things that they accepted as ?meaningless work?. In the list of ?meaningless work? there were music, cinema, TV, picnic, marriage and anniversary ceremonies. Even though they forbid to their children to play with their toys. Photographs, pictures of people and animals, magazines, newspapers and many books were in this list as well. 

According to their perspective, if a woman doesn?t want to be in problem then she is supposed to wear burka and she should not go out unless it is not necessary. Moreover, men were not allowed anymore to shave their beard. Men who shaved were punished by cutting their two fingers. 

Taliban, has given the title of emirü?l-müminin to Omar that was not given to anyone for almost 1000 years. It was also said that the dress he wore was the cardigan of Prophet Mohammed. Nevertheless, what empowered Omer was the ?road security agreement? that he signed with Pakistani government in 20th November 1994. Therefore, the control of the commercial roads of Afghanistan were in the hands of Taliban. Besides, the Pakistan information service was working in collaboration with Taliban. Taliban, who was the implementer of a strict Sheria in internal borders, has also become the drug smuggler in external borders. Moreover, he won about 100 million dollars through drug smuggling. 

CONCLUSION 

Taliban is an organization composed of uneducated members. It never became the power of the world. It had the characteristics of a peasantry organization. 

The ideological structure of Taliban was based on patriarchal motives. Furthermore, its? perception about Islam was very shallow and was ornamented with archaic items. Religion for them was ?the rules that the tradition brought? more than ?the laws of God?. Because they were uneducated the only thing they could do was to shout several slogans. Moreover, they believed that through obeying their leader they were practicing the holy war. On of the clear indication of this thought could be their act related to drug smuggling even though this act was forbidden by every religion. 

Taliban does not have any similarity with El-Quade. Even though they were in relation together for a while, Taliban has emerged as a consequence of the special circumstances of Afghanistan. 

Y?lmaz SOYYER